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It’s common for 13-year-olds to start seeking a little independence once they’ve entered their teen years. And many times, they do that by earning some money with a first part-time job.

They’ll naturally face some limitations compared to older teens—13-year-olds are legally restricted from doing a wide number of tasks. Fortunately, there are plenty of side hustles a newly minted teen can tackle to make some cash.

Today, I’m going to show you some of the best jobs for 13-year-olds. Teens have a variety of interests and skills, not to mention availability and access to transportation, so this list is built with a wide range of scenarios in mind. 

Also, in compiling this list, I spoke with the U.S. Department of Labor’s Wage and Hour Division to ensure the jobs outlined below comply with federal laws. (But you’ll still need to determine whether your state’s laws prohibit them.)

In short, all of the side hustles explained in the sections below are appropriate for 13-year-olds. Better yet: Many of them are simple, and some of them are even fun!

 

Can 13-Year-Olds Have a Job?


Yes, a 13-year-old can have a job—with a few pretty important asterisks.

According to the U.S. Department of Labor, kids under age 14 cannot be employed in non-agricultural jobs covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). However, this doesn’t mean 13-year-olds cannot have jobs—they are simply limited to work that’s exempt from the FLSA.

What Labor Laws Apply to Kids?


babysitter babysitting child

The child labor laws for agricultural jobs are more lenient than those for non-agricultural jobs. However, I’m largely going to focus on non-agricultural jobs and the labor laws that apply to them.

The primary labor law governing kids’ jobs is the Fair Labor Standards Act, which provides for a range of workplace protections. According to the FLSA, children age 13 and younger cannot have any non-agricultural jobs that are covered by the FLSA. Its provisions concerning youths prevent kids from being exposed to hazardous working conditions, operating dangerous equipment and machinery, working long hours, or during certain times of the day. (These regulations are stricter for teens age 15 and younger than they are for older teens.)

Moreover, federal law isn’t necessarily the last say—some state laws might be more prohibitive. So as you’re exploring jobs for 13-year-olds, you’ll also want to consult state labor laws to make sure a particular type of work is or isn’t allowed.

Therefore, finding jobs for 13-year-olds isn’t exactly easy—and when it comes to the types of work they can perform, these jobs are best characterized as “side hustles” or “side gigs.”

How Can Kids Make Money?


Despite the various restrictions on youth labor, 13-year-olds still can make money in a number of ways.

Some options include working some summer jobs when school isn’t in session, working for family members, and part-time work for employers who can legally offer jobs to 13-year-olds. Also, 13-year-olds can get some non-formal jobs—side hustles, odd jobs, and similar activities. Indeed, a few of the best jobs for 13-year-olds involve making a little cash at home through completing easy tasks on the internet.

One last thing to keep in mind: As I mentioned above, I talked with the Department of Labor’s Wage and Hour Division to ensure the types of jobs listed below are acceptable for 13-year-olds. But something you’ll have to consider about any prospective job is whether it includes duties that would be considered hazardous—a big no-no that limits the type of work that youths can tackle. (For instance, a 13-year-old might be able to work in their parents’ restaurant, but they wouldn’t be allowed to participate in any baking.)

So, let’s look at the different work options that 13-year-olds have. We’ll start with online jobs, then pivot to offline jobs.

Best Online Jobs for 13-Year-Olds

1. Completing Online Surveys


family mom dad teens children custodial account

  • Minimum age requirement: Varies by service, typically 13

Everyone has an opinion! But did you know you could get paid for yours? Several online survey sites offer up a little money when you tell them what you think. Below, we highlight three of the more popular services for taking surveys.

(We’ll note, while taking online surveys on a survey site or app might not be the most lucrative use of your time, the convenience and flexibility these services provide can make them worthwhile contenders for teens interested in making money online from home or on the go.)

Swagbucks

  • Minimum age requirement: 13

Making money online through Swagbucks is simple. Swagbucks lets users earn Swagbucks points (SBs) by completing simple tasks—that includes taking surveys, yes, but also shopping online, playing video games, or even just doing web searches.

Users can redeem SBs for gift cards from popular retailers, such as Apple, Amazon, and Target; the website awards roughly 7,000 gift cards every day. However, if you just want cash, you can redeem points that way, too, and receive the money in a PayPal account. You’ll need your own bank account if you want to transfer this money for you to use.

Several companies offer bank accounts specifically designed for kids and even teen checking accounts with debit cards. Just the same, you might consider asking your parents if you can use their account.

Related: Best Brokerage Account Bonuses and Promotions

Branded Surveys

  • Minimum age requirement: 13 (Teens age 13 to 17 must have parental consent)

Branded Surveys has paid out more than $36 million to more than 3 million users.

The surveys made available to you will depend on your interests and profile information, as well as what research partners currently need. Each survey earns points; you can cash out once you’ve accumulated at least 500 points. Depending on survey length, users make anywhere from 50 cents to $5 per survey.

You can use your points toward gift cards from more than 100 brands, receive cash in your PayPal or bank account, or even make a charitable donation.

Related: 13 Best Money Apps for Teens [Invest, Spend, Budget + Pay]

2. Test Apps and Games


  • Minimum age requirement: Varies by service, typically 13

Teens love to play on their phones, so why wouldn’t a 13-year-old love to get paid to test out apps and even mobile games? Crazy as it sounds, this is a legitimate side hustle—and probably one of the most fun jobs for teens.

Scrambly

  • Minimum age requirement: 13

Scrambly rewards you for playing games and trying out apps. Users test companies’ products on their phones with various in-game steps. In exchange for testing the apps and games, they get coins. These can be exchanged for gift cards or cash back to a PayPal account.

To earn rewards faster, people can also take surveys and invite friends. When you recruit friends, you get a commission on their lifetime earnings.

There is no minimum or maximum amount of time you have to spend. You can do this occasionally for just a bit more spending cash or more frequently to rack up rewards faster.

Related: Best Passive Income Ideas & Passive Income Investments

3. Play Video Games


video games gamer teen streaming twitch

  • Minimum age requirement: Varies by service

Along the same lines, some companies pay people to simply play video games.

MyPoints

  • Minimum age requirement: 13 (Teens age 13 to 17 must have parental consent)

MyPoints helps users earn money to redeem toward gift cards by playing online games. Activities include online games, bingo, puzzles, trivia and more. The more people play, the more MyPoints points they earn. For playing games, you can get up to 4 points/$ per game. Units can be redeemed for gift cards to stores including Target, Starbucks, Sephora, and more.

This app is available to teens 13+, though teens age 13 to 17 need to have parental consent.

Related: 10 Best Free Debit Cards for Kids & Teens [Earn, Save & Spend]

4. Sharing Your Internet Connection


  • Minimum age requirement: Varies by service

OK. Sharing your internet connection might not exactly sound safe at first blush. But a few service providers do provide safeguards while sharing your connection with partner companies looking to conduct a variety of marketing tasks. Take Honeygain, for example.

Honeygain

  • Minimum age requirement: Legal age of maturity; teens under said age must get parental consent

Teens looking for a passive online summer job should consider Honeygain, which allows you to earn rewards merely by sharing your internet.

With Honeygain, you effectively open up your internet connection to Honeygain’s partner companies. “These companies extract insights from the web using Honeygain to make market research, ad-fraud prevention, brand protection, pricing intelligence, travel fare aggregation, and SEO monitoring services,” Honeygain says. Honeygain only allows trusted partners to use your internet, and it will never ask for or gain access to your personal data.

Honeygain provides a wide variety of returns, including covering monthly subscriptions to platforms such as Netflix, Amazon Prime, and YouTube Premium; free gaming with Xbox Live, Twitch Prime, free in-game currency, and more; and even returns in crypto or PayPal cash.

Earnings vary based on the amount of traffic you share. For instance, Honeygain’s estimating calculator says that if you share 6 GB of traffic every day, across eight hours per day, you could earn $20 per month. That might not seem like a lot, but remember: You’re not doing anything differently than you otherwise would.

Teens should consult their parents about using Honeygain, including whether they’re allowed, the amount of GB that can be shared, and how much time per day is acceptable.

5. Watch Ads


best jobs 15 year olds teen watching ads

  • Minimum age requirement: Varies by service

Watching ads is a simple way to earn rewards. You can easily watch these while laying in bed or multi-task and watch them as you stretch or workout.

MyPoints

  • Minimum age requirement: 13 (Teens age 13 to 17 must have parental consent)

One of the best places to earn points from watching video ads is MyPoints. The website is highly rated on Trustpilot and has paid out hundreds of millions of dollars in gift cards.

There are many other ways to earn rewards on MyPoints as well. Users can earn points through shopping, taking surveys, playing games, signing up for trial services, and more. (And the variety can keep you from getting bored.)

Points can be redeemed for gift cards to stores such as Target, Apple, and Sephora, as well to PayPal, movie theaters, and much more.

6. Watch Videos for Money


  • Minimum age requirement: Varies by service, typically 13

You can also watch videos that aren’t ads to earn money. Another way 13-year-olds can earn extra money is by watching various types of video content online.

ySense

  • Minimum age requirement: 13

ySense is an online community with multiple earning options for tasks such as taking paid surveys, testing new apps, signing up for websites, watching videos and more. Paid online surveys can be completed on your own schedule, and every survey completed earns points.

The service suggests completing the daily checklist bonus, a way to leverage more earning potential from the platform. For each day that you complete your Daily Checklist, you will have a bonus of up to 16.0% added to your account balance at the end of that day. You are paid via PayPal.

7. Create Your Own Products and Sell Things on Etsy


  • Minimum age requirement: 18*

Etsy is one of the most popular e-commerce online marketplaces—it’s effectively a one-stop shop for original items.

Don’t worry, though: You don’t necessarily need to sell physical items, such as crocheted sweaters or woodwork, which would require you to spend money on expensive materials every time you get an order.

You can create digital products, such as E-printables. Not sure how to create or sell them online? You can take an Etsy E-Printables online course to learn how. Online courses are an excellent way to learn a marketable skill.

Once you’ve learned how to create E-printables, you can set up an Etsy store and earn passive income by selling them. Check out the course in the product box below to learn more.

* The minimum age to sell through Etsy is 18, but if you’re younger, you can ask a parent or another trusted adult if you can sell your items via their account.

8. Start a YouTube Channel


YouTube channel teen influencer video

  • Minimum age requirement: 18*

Depending on how much time and effort you put into creating YouTube videos, you have the potential not just to make a little extra money, but a sizable amount.

While teens make up the majority of minors who make money by creating videos about topics they love, even younger kids can get in on this opportunity as long as an adult is willing to create a channel for them. While you can get paid from ads that play during your content, many YouTubers earn much more money from sponsored videos, swag, and paid product promos.

* You must be 18 years old to earn ad revenue from your YouTube channel, but if you’re younger, you can create an account with a trusted adult.

 

9. Manage Social Media Accounts


  • Minimum age requirement: Minimum required age of social media platform

Running social media accounts is an excellent way for teenagers to earn their own money online, especially if they are considering a marketing career in the future. While you’re unlikely to land a role at a major company (which would be a full-time position anyway, and thus not an option here), you can work for smaller businesses or individuals in need of social media marketing help.

This position is a great fit for anyone who has a large social media following of their own, as it showcases your abilities on the platform.

But you’ll have to demonstrate maturity: While businesses know how adept young adults are at navigating social media, a couple bad choices could destroy their reputations.

10. Become a Virtual Assistant (VA)


  • Minimum age requirement: None, but recommended 13+

The responsibilities of a virtual assistant vary, but often include tasks such as responding to emails, scheduling meetings, data entry, and other administrative tasks. While the client focuses on the higher-level aspects of a business, the virtual assistant handles tasks that are easier but still essential to get done.

This is a particularly great way to make money as a teenager if you personally know someone who could use a virtual assistant, such as family and friends. Virtual assistants often work with personal information about their employer, so they’ll prefer to work with someone they know and trust.

11. Start Your Own TikTok Channel


  • Minimum age requirement: 18*

Rather than spending endless hours scrolling through TikTok, teens could be creating their own content to earn money through the platform. Teens aren’t eligible to apply for TikTok’s Creator Fund until they are at least 18 years old, but that isn’t the only way to earn money through the app.

Teens can partner with brands to create sponsored posts or promote their own products on the platform. Those who start building an audience young can have a substantial following by the time they reach 18 and can apply for the Creator Fund.

* You must be 18 years old to earn money through the TikTok Creator Fund.

12. Open a Teen Investment Account


  • Minimum age requirement: 13

Everyone loves spending money, but if you save and invest your money as a teenager, you can grow that cash into much larger sums in the future. It’s not a quick way to make money, unlike the jobs above. But it’s still a worthwhile way to put some of your earnings to work so you can generate even more money over time.

 

13. Saving Money in a Bank Account


  • Minimum age requirement: Varies by bank, can be as young as 6

While teens should invest some of their money, most of what they earn should go in a traditional bank account. Bank accounts make it easy to both save and spend your money, and they’re the backbone of solid money management.

If you’d prefer to simply save some and spend some, a Chase First Banking account is an excellent way to meet your needs.

Save and spend with Chase First Banking


chase first banking sign up

Ready to teach your little ones about money, but not quite sure if you have the time, patience and expertise?

Chase First Banking offers simple banking for both of you in one location: the Chase Mobile® App—for free. Manage all accounts with this mobile app and encounter no fees as well as find yourself able to withdraw money on 16,000 Chase ATMs around the country. The account is designed with kids 6-12 in mind, and available for ages 6-17.

At the heart of Chase First Banking sits one of the best free debit cards for kids and teens that works anywhere Visa is accepted.

Need insight and oversight into your child’s spending and saving? You can set spend alerts and limits as well as specific locations all in your Chase Mobile® app.

Teach your kids to spend, save and earn—all from the Chase Mobile® app. Chase First Banking helps parents teach teens and kids about money by giving parents the control they want and kids the freedom they need to learn.

To get started, you’ll first need to be a Chase customer with a qualifying Chase checking account.

Consider opening a Chase Total Checking or Chase Secure Banking account to qualify.

  • Chase Total Checking also grants access to 16,000 Chase ATMs and more than 4,700 branches as well as a $300 sign-up bonus when you set up direct deposit within 90 days of coupon enrollment. You can pay $0 in monthly fees, subject to meeting certain conditions*.
  • Chase Secure Banking offers the same Chase ATMs and branch locations as well as a $100 sign-up bonus when you make stated qualifying activities and meet certain conditions.

Once you open a qualifying Chase Checking account, you may apply for a Chase First Banking account for your child.

Read more in our Chase First Banking review.

Related: 5 Best Investment Accounts for Kids [Child Investment Plans]

14. Earn Cryptocurrency


  • Minimum age requirement: 13

Numerous apps allow you to earn cryptocurrency, which like other investments—stocks, ETFs, mutual funds, and more—can grow in value.

Earn crypto with Step

The free Step Visa Card is a unique “hybrid” secured credit card that’s tailor-made for kids and teens. It has the safety features of a debit card, but it functions like a Visa credit card—including the ability to build your child’s credit history.

Parents, who sponsor the card for their child, add money to this FDIC-insured account and can determine how their child can spend. Kids can use their card anywhere Visa is accepted, and even use it to withdraw cash within Step’s network of more than 30,000 ATMs.

Step’s credit card for teens features an “invest” function that allows children age 13 and older to buy and sell Bitcoin for a small transaction fee. They can also earn Bitcoin (or cash) rewards when they opt into offers from companies like Hulu, Chick-Fil-A, CVS, and The New York Times. The app is not a pure crypto wallet, however—your kids currently can’t spend Bitcoin directly at vendors.

One of the most unique and powerful features of the Step card is its ability to build your teen’s credit history. With this optional feature, Step will report the past two years’ worth of information—transactions, payment history, and more—to the credit bureaus when your child turns 18. That can greatly improve their chances of starting adult life with a better credit score, which can help lower the cost of things like student loans and auto insurance.

Read more in our Step review.

Related: Best Prepaid Debit Cards for Kids & Teens

Best Offline Jobs for 13-Year-Olds


Now, let’s look at some jobs that a 13-year-old wouldn’t necessarily need a computer or smartphone to do. (Note: There are no hard-and-fast minimum age requirements for any of the below.)

15. Camp Counselor


summer camp fire kids

While some camp counselor jobs require teens to be a bit older, other camps are open to hiring a young teen as a junior camp counselor. These can be excellent jobs for 13-year-olds as they are less intimidating to the younger campers and have the energy to keep up with them.

Camps can revolve around a wide variety of themes, but most involve the outdoors, meaning counselors get to enjoy fresh air and sunshine. The seasonality is perfect, too—13-year-olds can do their work during the summer and be finished with it well before school starts again.

 

16. Car Washer


Teens can run car washes from home or they can make deals with local businesses to use their parking lots. Either way, it’s a great job for teens who want to work outdoors.

A few things to consider? You’ll want to make sure that you have permission to use the water (whether it’s your parents’ permission or the company whose parking lot you’re using). You’ll also need access to a hose, car soap, and towels.

17. Walking Dogs / Pet Sitting


best side hustles teens pet sitting cats

Walking dogs allows teens to get some exercise and enjoy the sunshine. And, of course, it’s a perfect summer job for dog lovers.

And if you love dogs, or other pets, you can also try your hand at pet sitting. Pet sitting involves making sure the animals have enough exercise, as well as enough food and water, and possibly even medicine. In some cases, young teens might be required to spend the night in another person’s home.

This can be great steady work, as a teenage dog walker (or teenage pet sitter) who’s good with animals is likely to get repeat clients.

18. Bike Mechanic


A teen that knows how to fix his or her own bicycle could become a teenage bike mechanic for others.

To start, the teen needs a bicycle repair tool kit or permission to borrow any necessary tools from their parents. In addition to making small repairs, the teen might conduct bike safety checks, clean and lubricate bicycle parts, even make recommendations for accessories or other items to buy.

However, if a bike needs major repairs that require the use of power tools, or the repair would in some other way endanger the teen’s safety, the teen must recommend an adult professional tackle it.

19. House Sitting


House sitting is a wonderful job for 13-year-olds who want some space for themselves. The main responsibility is to keep the home occupied while the owners are away. Additionally, the house sitter may be asked to bring in mail, water plants, or handle other basic household tasks.

20. Gardening Services


Gardening can be physical, time-consuming work, so many people hire others to handle gardening services. Tasks may include pulling weeds, planting flowers, spreading mulch, and more.

If you’re looking for clients, start with older family members and neighbors. However, teens might be able to make a deal with a real estate agent or other local businesses.

Gardening jobs for 13-year-olds are a wonderful fit for anyone with a green thumb who wants to spend time outside. But remember: The FLSA prohibits young teens from using power-driven machinery like power cutters and trimmers.

21. Lawn Mowing


Mowing lawns is a classic job for teenagers. Lawn mowing demand is highest during the summer months, so this can be a great job while school is out. The teenager is in complete control of how many clients they take on and how much they charge per lawn.

This can be difficult for 13-year-olds, however, given that they’re prohibited from using power-driven equipment. Thus, this is only an option if you have a manual push mower.

22. Fence Painter


Tom Sawyer doesn’t own the market on fence painting. Being a teenage fence painter can be a fun job. There’s no need to dress up, as you’re going to get messy. And yes, while some people will want to hire professional fence painters, it’s a simple enough job, so many people are happy to hire teens at a more affordable price.

Also, this can be solitary work, or you can do this job with friends.

23. Lemonade Stand Operator


lemonade stand operator job teens

While other teens are working up a sweat walking dogs, mowing lawns, and painting fences, strategic teens might sell them (and everyone else) cups of lemonade to cool them down. To set a lemonade stand apart, consider offering baked goods, handmade items, and more. Teens might even offer Girl Scout cookies.

Other Best Side Hustles for 13-Year-Olds


These remaining side hustles are a collection of jobs that 13-year-olds can do. Again, there is no hard-and-fast age minimum for any of the below.

24. Freelance Writer


teen freelance writing blog

Many 13-year-olds write as a hobby. As it turns out, that hobby can be an excellent side hustle. You can do all sorts of freelance writing—you could offer to write blogs or social media posts for a local business, create custom poems people can gift to others, and more. Also, when teenagers write for pay, they’re improving their language skills, which will help them in school, too.

25. English Tutor


English tutoring is a popular online job—but it can also be done in the comfort of your home, or another student’s home.

Tutoring might require planned lessons, though some English tutoring mostly just involves having conversations to make non-native speakers more comfortable with the language. Teachers may be able to connect their students with teenagers in other parts of the world who want to learn English online.

Tutorpeers

  • Minimum age requirement: 13

One option is to sign up for Tutorpeers, which provides a safe space where teens ages 13-18 can get paid to tutor other students.

With Tutorpeers, you can set your own rates. Learners begin booking tutoring appointments and are charged 12 hours before the session—then the payments are released to you within two to three days after the session.

Tutorpeers users must sign up for a Stripe account, which in turn will allow them to get paid in their bank account.

 

26. Voiceover Specialist


A teen with a unique voice or interest in acting should consider becoming a teenage voiceover specialist. Voice actors are useful for YouTube videos, audiobooks, commercials, and much more. Voiceover work can turn into a career of its own or work as a transition into in-person acting. (Just note that teens might need to invest in a decent microphone to earn more lucrative gigs.)

 

27. Graphic Designer


red pencil standout different unique

Graphic design is a broad field and a great fit for creative teens. One could become a teenage logo designer, make graphics for websites, create visuals for pamphlets, and much more. After creating some samples, teens can begin by reaching out to family friends or nearby businesses.

Those who can land graphic design jobs as 13-year-olds could very well start building a strong work portfolio that should help them in college applications and even landing full-time positions in adulthood.

28. Start Your Own Business


Any teen whose job search is coming up empty should consider starting their own business.

It’s best to start with your interests. For example, a teen that loves gaming might sell in-game currency. A teen who loves technology might become a community tech-help source.

There are endless types of businesses a teen can create—and a particularly successful business might one day be sold off for a profit, or turned into a full-time career.

Jobs for 13-Year-Olds: FAQs


questions faq raised hands question mark

What is the youngest age teens can get summer jobs?

The youngest age you can get a summer job depends on the type of work you want to do. If you want a non-agricultural W-2 job, you’ll have to wait until age 14. However, for agricultural jobs and side hustles, you can start younger. (Just make sure to avoid federally prohibited jobs for minors, which involve a variety of hazardous occupations.

What jobs can you have at the age of 13?

While 13-year-olds have to wait one more year to be eligible for many types of work, they still have plenty of options—both in-person and online jobs. Babysitting, yardwork, and dog walking are among the most popular jobs for young teens, but there are many more, including the jobs we’ve listed above.

Just remember: Teens can’t work during the school day, but they can have after-school jobs or work during the summer when school is out of session.

What are the highest-paying jobs for 13-year-olds?

Most of the jobs that 13-year-olds can get don’t have set wages—you try to pick a price that you’re willing to work for and that someone else is willing to pay.

But generally, the more skill the job requires and the more demand for the task, the higher you can set your rate. (The trade-off for some, but not all, higher-paying jobs for younger teens is that the amount of hours, and therefore the amount of money earned, can be unreliable.)

Can you invest your earnings from jobs for 13-year-olds toward retirement?

Yes, money earned from jobs for 13-year-olds can be invested for retirement—and in fact, we recommend it! But a teenager will need help from a parent or guardian.

There are a few ways minors can have money in an investment account, but only one of these options lets teens withdraw earnings tax-free during retirement.

You could have a joint brokerage account with a parent, or your parent could open up a standard custodial account. However, if you want to make tax-free withdrawals during retirement, you’ll need a custodial Roth IRA. The annual contribution limit for these accounts is the amount of earned income the teen has for the year, or $6,500—whichever amount is lower.

Investing for retirement as a 13-year-old is a wise move, as the invested money will have nearly half a century to compound! Because it’s so beneficial, some parents make a deal with their teen to match their contributions—that way, the teen is motivated to save for retirement but still gets to enjoy some of their hard-earned money right now.

About the Author

Riley Adams is the Founder and CEO of Young and the Invested. He is a licensed CPA who worked at Google as a Senior Financial Analyst overseeing advertising incentive programs for the company’s largest advertising partners and agencies. Previously, he worked as a utility regulatory strategy analyst at Entergy Corporation for six years in New Orleans.

His work has appeared in major publications like Kiplinger, MarketWatch, MSN, TurboTax, Nasdaq, Yahoo! Finance, The Globe and Mail, and CNBC’s Acorns. Riley currently holds areas of expertise in investing, taxes, real estate, cryptocurrencies and personal finance where he has been cited as an authoritative source in outlets like CNBC, Time, NBC News, APM’s Marketplace, HuffPost, Business Insider, Slate, NerdWallet, Investopedia, The Balance and Fast Company.

Riley holds a Masters of Science in Applied Economics and Demography from Pennsylvania State University and a Bachelor of Arts in Economics and Bachelor of Science in Business Administration and Finance from Centenary College of Louisiana.